{"@context": "http://iiif.io/api/presentation/2/context.json", "attribution": "Art Collection", "sequences": [{"canvases": [{"description": "", "height": 4961, "width": 5963, "@type": "sc:Canvas", "images": [{"on": "https://images.is.ed.ac.uk/luna/servlet/iiif/m/UoEart~1~1~75448~198418/canvas/c1", "motivation": "sc:painting", "resource": {"service": {"profile": "http://iiif.io/api/image/2/level2.json", "@context": "http://iiif.io/api/image/2/context.json", "@id": "https://images.is.ed.ac.uk/luna/servlet/iiif/UoEart~1~1~75448~198418"}, "format": "image/jpeg", "height": 4961, "width": 5963, "@id": "https://images.is.ed.ac.uk/luna/servlet/iiif/UoEart~1~1~75448~198418/full/!1024,1024/0/default.jpg", "@type": "dctypes:Image"}, "@type": "oa:Annotation"}], "label": "The Lagrangian of the Electroweak Theory - Steven Weinberg", "@id": "https://images.is.ed.ac.uk/luna/servlet/iiif/m/UoEart~1~1~75448~198418/canvas/c1", "thumbnail": {"@id": "https://images.is.ed.ac.uk/MediaManager/srvr?mediafile=/Size0/UoEart~1~1/437/0152473c.jpg"}, "metadata": [{"value": "0152473", "label": "Work Record ID"}, {"value": "EU5473", "label": "ID Number"}, {"value": "01 Sep 2017", "label": "ID Date"}, {"value": "The Lagrangian of the Electroweak Theory", "label": "Title"}, {"value": "Weinberg, Steven (b.1933)", "label": "Creator"}, {"value": "Artist", "label": "Creator Role"}, {"value": "Concinnitas is a portfolio of 10 aquatints with accompanying statements, one each by the following participants: Michael Atiyah, Enrico Bombieri, Simon K. Donaldson, Freeman Dyson, Murray Gell-Mann, Richard Karp, Peter Lax, David Mumford, Stephen Smale and Steven Weinberg. It has been curated and includes and introduction by Daniel Rockmore. The portfolio has been printed in an edition of 100 copies, numbered 1-100, with 15 additional copies lettered AP 1-15. Each of the 10 aquatints has been prepared and printed on Rives BFK White 300g paper using Gamblin Portland Black ink and editioned at Harlan & Weaver, New York City, New York, under the supervisiion of Felix Harlan, Carol Weaver and Derick Wycherly. The artist statements and signature cards have been printed on Crane's Lettra paper by Jenn Lawrence at Letterpress PDX in Portland, Oregon. Published in 2014 by Parasol Press, Ltd., Portland, Oregon, Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut and in association with Bernard Jacobson Gallery, London, England.", "label": "Production Notes"}, {"value": "Harlan & Weaver, Inc. (estab. 1984)", "label": "Creator"}, {"value": "Printer", "label": "Creator Role"}, {"value": "Parasol Press Ltd.", "label": "Creator"}, {"value": "Publisher", "label": "Creator Role"}, {"value": "Rockmore, Daniel", "label": "Creator"}, {"value": "Collaborator", "label": "Creator Role"}, {"value": "2014", "label": "Date"}, {"value": "The portfolio Concinnitas is the result of a collaboration between Dan Rockmore (Professor of Mathematics, Dartmouth College); ten renowned mathematicians and physicists; the publisher Robert Feldman (who earlier produced seminal Conceptual art print portfolios); and the New York printing house Harlan & Weaver. It takes its title from a term used by the Renaissance artist and architect Leon Battista Alberti (1404\u20131472) to indicate the proportions of beauty. Each print represents a participant\u2019s answer to Rockmore\u2019s prompt to represent the \"most beautiful mathematical expression\" they had encountered in their work or study. Rendered so as to mimic the aesthetics of a handwritten equation, such as those immortalized in photographs of Albert Einstein\u2019s blackboard, Concinnitas also echoes Conceptual artists\u2019 engagement with language and systems. While to the layperson the mathematical content may remain enigmatic or require further research, the prints persist on their own as powerful visual signs communicating the gesture and intentions of their creators. Artist statement: This equation presents the original version of what has become the standard theory of two fundamental forces of nature, the electromagnetic force and the weak nuclear force. The latter force, though less familiar than electromagnetism, is responsible for an important kind of radioactivity, known as beta decay, and for the first step in the chain of nuclear reactions that gives heat to the sun and stars. This equation was Eq. (4) in my first paper on this subject, published in 1967. This was for some years the most widely cited paper ever published in elementary particle physics, and may still be. The electroweak theory is a field theory. Its fundamental ingredients are fields, including the electric and magnetic fields. The quantity denoted by {L} on the left side of the equation is a combination of fields and their rates of change, known as the Lagrangian density of this theory. The Lagrangian density is something like an energy density, an dit provides a convenient way of summarizing all the equations governing the fields of the theory, following rules that have been used by physicists since the 1930s. Most of the symbols on the right-hand side of the equation denote the various fields of the theory. The weak and electromagnetic forces are transmitted by the fields A\u1d64 and B\u1d64; the electric and magnetic fields are combinations of A\u1d64 and B\u1d64. The neutrino and left-handed part of the electron field (that is, the field that describes electrons that are spinning around their direction of motion like the fingers of the left-hand curling around the thumb) are united in the symbol L; the right-handed part of the electron field is denoted R. The quantities g and g' are numerical constants, related to the charge of the electron, whose values have to be taken from experiment. The third and fourth lines of the equation describe the mechanism by which the symmetry of the theory between neutrinos and left0handed electrons, and between the weak and electromagnetic forces, is broken. The symbol \u03c6 denotes a quartet of fields, whose interaction with the other fields gives mass to the electron, leaving the neutrino massless, and gives mass to the three particles that transmit the weak forces, leaving the photon (the particle of light) massless. The quantities Ge, M12 and h are additional numerical constants, related to the mass of the electron and the strength of the weak forces. One of the quartet of fields included in \u03c6 corresponds to a new particle, which was not discovered experimentally until 2012. The equation may not look beautiful. Its beauty lies in its rigidity - once its ingredients are specified, its structure is pretty well fixed by conditions of mathematical consistency. Leave out one line, or just change a minus sign to a plus sign and the whole thing would beco", "label": "Description"}, {"value": "aquatint/Etching", "label": "Material"}, {"value": "Art Collection", "label": "Repository"}, {"value": "AP12", "label": "Source"}, {"value": "Modern and Contemporary Art Collection", "label": "Repository"}, {"value": "AP12", "label": "Source"}, {"value": "Mathematics", "label": "Subject Category"}, {"value": "\u00a9 the artist", "label": "Rights Statement"}, {"value": "The Lagrangian of the Electroweak Theory - Steven Weinberg", "label": "Repro Title"}, {"value": "0152473c.tif", "label": "Repro ID Number"}, {"value": "The Lagrangian of the Electroweak Theory - Steven Weinberg", "label": "Repro Description"}, {"value": "\u00a9 University of Edinburgh Art Collections", "label": "Repro Rights Statement"}, {"value": "Full public access", "label": "Repro Publication Status"}]}], "viewingHint": "individuals", "@type": "sc:Sequence"}], "logo": "https://images.is.ed.ac.uk/luna/images/LUNAIIIF80.png", "@id": "http://collections.ed.ac.uk/manifests/EU5473.json", "@type": "sc:Manifest", "related": "https://images.is.ed.ac.uk/luna/servlet/iiif/m/UoEart~1~1~75448~198418/manifest", "label": "The Lagrangian of the Electroweak Theory - Steven Weinberg"}